• in each SAH patient, it is necessary to search for its source by examining the arterial circulation
  • CT angiography (as part of the initial CT scan) is the primary diagnostic method for aneurysm detection; in case of negative findings, DSA is usually performed
    • in isolated perimesencephalic SAH (PMSAH), the cost-effectiveness of subsequent DSA is questionable  [Kalra, 2015]
  • when SAH is localized in the posterior fossa, consider a potential source of bleeding in the spinal cord
SAH caused by rupture of basilar apex aneurysm
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CT Angiography

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MRI and MR Angiography

  • the time-of-flight (TOF) method is used in intracranial MRA;  3T scanners have a higher sensitivity
    • sensitivity 85-100% for aneurysm > 5mm  [Sailer, 2013]
    • sensitivity decreases with aneurysms < 5mm (56%)
  • MRA is a suitable method for screening and follow-up (but compared to CTA and DSA, MRA is less sensitive for detection of small changes in the aneurysm size)
  • MRI + MRA can detect thrombosed aneurysms that DSA may miss and can help to assess the extent of thrombosis)
Aneurysm of the intracranial ICA segment

ICA aneurysm on MRA
ICA aneurysm on MRA

Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)

Technique

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Aneurysm of the ICA siphon

SAH caused by PComm aneurysm
3D DSA
Aneurysm of the distal segment of ICA

Images assessment

  • seek aneurysm(s) or other sources of bleeding
  • assess the type and localization of the aneurysm (shape and size of the sac, type and width of the neck, vascular geometry, and relationship to the parent artery and surrounding branches)
  • exclude multiple aneurysms and other concomitant vascular malformations Vascular malformations
  • with multiple aneurysms (present in up to 15% of cases), estimate the one which was the probable source of bleeding
    • localization of blood and the shape of the aneurysm can help
      • GRE sequence can be helpful in SAHs with negative CT (small or old SAH)  Subtle convexial SAH on MR GRE sequence
    • the most frequent findings among ruptured aneurysms are:
      • multilobulated aneurysm
      • sac with irregular contour
      • aneurysm with a daughter sac
  • assess the overall intracranial vascular status:
    • the presence of vasospasms
    • the patency of the Circle of Willis  (is the collateral circulation sufficient if feeding artery occlusion is required?)
    • the general condition of the intracranial circulation (sclerotic changes and stenoses in the access route and feeding artery)
  • if feeding artery occlusion is considered, add functional tests
    • Matas test – manual compression of the artery with simultaneous injection of the contralateral ICA or ipsilateral vertebral artery to assess the functionality of the collateral circulation
    • Balloon Test Occlusion  (BTO) is more reliable because manual external compression is usually inadequate
      • should not be performed in acute SAH as heparinization during the procedure is required

Further procedures after negative initial examination

Perimesencephalic SAH

  • if CTA and DSA are negative, then repeated DSA is not required [Huttner,2006]

Non-perimesencephalic SAH

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