Stroke mimics

Malignant non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma
ISCHEMIC STROKE Stroke mimics Created 24/05/2023, last revision 11/06/2023 [toc] stroke is a medical emergency presenting with focal neurological deficits; stroke mimics are non-vascular conditions that present with symptoms similar to those of stroke. incidence of stroke mimics is ~3-10% [Okano, 2018]   [Winkler, 2009]   [Scott, 2003]   [Tsivgoulis, 2011] most common are epileptic seizures, migraine, ... Read more

Stroke and migraine

Young female migraineur complained of prolonged visual aura and vertigo followed by migrainous headache. DWI demonstrated small cortical infarction in the right occipital lobe
ISCHEMIC STROKE / CLASSIFICATION AND ETIOPATOGENESIS Stroke and migraine Created 17/02/2023, last revision 03/09/2023 [toc] migraine is the most common neurological disorder, affecting 10-15% of the adult population there is increasing evidence of an association between migraine and vascular disease (ischemic stroke, subclinical brain lesions, cardiac events, and vascular mortality)  [Lee, 2016]   [Anderson, 2013]  [Stang, ... Read more

Neuroimaging in pediatric stroke

Focal cerebral arteriopathy on MRA
ISCHEMIC STROKE Neuroimaging in pediatric stroke Created 09/12/2022, last revision 21/12/2022 [toc] pediatric stroke is increasingly being recognized as an important cause of morbidity and mortality over 75% of children suffer long-term neurological deficits  mortality approx. 10%  19% recurrence/ 5 years it has a unique presentation (which may delay correct diagnosis) and etiologies (→ etiology ... Read more

Recanalization therapy in acute stroke

Recanalization therapy
ISCHEMIC STROKE / ACUTE THERAPY Recanalization therapy in acute stroke Created 16/09/2022, last revision 22/07/2023 [toc] Introduction Recanalization restoration of flow at the primary occlusion site AOL  Reperfusion restoration of anterograde flow in the vessels beyond the primary occlusion site (anterograde perfusion) TICI  Collateral circulation retrograde perfusion  Distal embolization new occlusion detected distal to the ... Read more

Early management of patients with suspected stroke

Infarct caused by the P2 segment occlusion
GENERAL THERAPY Early management of patients with suspected stroke Created 07/06/2022, last revision 06/09/2023 [toc] any patient with rapidly evolving neurological deficits should be evaluated as a potential candidate for recanalization therapy and transported ASAP to the nearest Stroke Center (SC) or Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) for urgent diagnostic evaluation and treatment Definition and clinical ... Read more

Intravenous thrombolysis in acute stroke

Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT)
ISCHEMIC STROKE / ACUTE THERAPY Intravenous thrombolysis in acute stroke Created 22/10/2021, last revision 22/07/2023 [toc] All patients with suspected acute stroke or TIA require immediate clinical evaluation to establish the diagnosis and to determine eligibility for intravenous thrombolysis and/or endovascular thrombectomy (EVT). intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is the standard therapy for acute ischemic stroke → ... Read more

Computed tomography (CT) in stroke diagnosis

MCA occlusion on NCCT and CTA
NEUROIMAGING / COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY Computed tomography (CT) in stroke diagnosis Created 21/03/2021, last revision 26/09/2023 [toc] computed tomography (CT) is essential in the management of patients with acute neurological deficits because to its rapid acquisition and immediate availability of results, it is usually the primary imaging modality used to rule out bleeding and stroke mimics ... Read more

Nontraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage

Non-traumatic convexal SAH
SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE Nontraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) Created 06/04/2021, last revision 14/08/2023 [toc] Definition non-traumatic spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage at the convexity (non-traumatic convexal SAH - cSAH) is defined as a collection of blood in 1 or more adjacent sulci in the absence of SAH in another localization it is relatively rare, but the etiological DDx ... Read more

Transient global amnesia (TGA)

Transient global amnesia (TGA)
ISCHEMIC STROKE / STROKE MIMICS Transient global amnesia (TGA) Created 24/03/2021, last revision 31/07/2023 [toc] transient global amnesia (TGA) is a sudden, temporary (lasting < 24h) episode of memory loss with the absence of other neurological signs that can't be attributed to more common neurological conditions, such as epilepsy or stroke mostly non-recurrent can be ... Read more

Transient ischemic attack (TIA)

Express trial
ISCHEMIC STROKE Transient ischemic attack (TIA) Created 23/03/2021, last revision 07/07/2023 [toc] 2021 ESO guidelines on the management of transient ischemic attack (TIA) Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) is a medical emergency despite its seemingly mild course, TIA is a serious predictor of subsequent ischemic stroke and death following TIA, the risk of recurrent stroke is ... Read more

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