Cryptogenic stroke

Cryptogenic stroke
ISCHEMIC STROKE / CLASSIFICATION AND ETIOPATHOGENESIS CRYPTOGENIC STROKE Created 17/12/2021, last revision 26/09/2022 [toc] Definition of cryptogenic stroke cryptogenic stroke (CS) = stroke of an unknown etiology (a diagnosis of exclusion) TOAST 5   (a strict diagnostic algorithm is not defined) ASCOD (Atherosclerosis, Small Vessel Disease, Cardiac Causes, Other, and Dissection) CCS (Causative Classification system) ... Read more

Early management of patients with suspected stroke

GENERAL THERAPY Early management of patients with suspected stroke Created 07/06/2022, last revision 05/09/2022 [toc] every patient with rapidly developing neurological deficits should be evaluated as a potential candidate for recanalization treatment and should be transported ASAP to the nearest stroke center or comprehensive stroke center for emergent diagnostic evaluation and therapy Definition and clinical ... Read more

Chinese Ischemic Stroke Subclassification (CISS)

Chinese Ischemic Stroke Subclassification (CISS)
ISCHEMIC STROKE / CLASSIFICATION Chinese Ischemic Stroke Subclassification (CISS) Created 12/04/2022, last revision 26/09/2022 [toc] classification of an acute ischemic stroke has a significant impact on patient care, secondary stroke prevention, and stroke research the most popular and commonly used stroke classification system is the TOAST other established systems: A–S–C–O classification (Amarenco, 2009) SSS-TOAST (Ay, ... Read more

Stroke in young adults

ISCHEMIC STROKE / CLASSIFICATION AND ETIOPATHOGENESIS Stroke in young adults Created 17/12/2021, last revision 22/09/2022 young adults stroke/juvenile stroke = stroke in persons aged 18 to 55y some authors use an upper age limit of 45 or 49 years young adults comprise 10%–15% of all stroke patients, with a significant increase above the age of ... Read more

TOAST classification of stroke

TOAST classification of stroke etiology
ADD-ONS / SCALES TOAST classification of stroke Created 23/03/2021, last revision 21/09/2022 [Schöberl, 2017] the exact etiology of ischemic stroke affects prognosis, outcome, and management a system for classifying ischemic stroke subtypes mainly based on etiology has been developed for the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST). TOAST classification denotes five subtypes of ... Read more

SSS-TOAST classification

ISCHEMIC STROKE / CLASSIFICATION SSS-TOAST CLASSIFICATION OF ISCHEMIC STROKE Created 26/09/2022, last revision 26/09/2022 The SSS-TOAST classification is an evidence-based classification algorithm, which reflects advances in stroke imaging and epidemiology [Ay, 2005] based on certain clinical and imaging criteria, each TOAST subtype is divided into 3 subcategories "certain", "probable", or "possible" the new algorithm refines ... Read more

Carotid artery web

Carotid artery web
ISCHEMIC STROKE Carotid artery web Created 02.04.2021, last update 12.01.2022 [toc] Definition the carotid artery web is increasingly recognized as an important cause of (recurrent) ischemic stroke in patients without other cardiovascular risk factors it is a thin membrane extending from the posterior wall of the carotid artery bulb into the lumen just above the ... Read more

Risk of Paradoxical Embolism (RoPE) Score

Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO)
ADD-ONS / SCALES AND SCORES ROPE score (Risk of Paradoxical Embolism) Created 09/12/2021, last revision 08/09/2022 → RoPE calculator → Patient Selection for PFO Closure Based on the RoPE Study the prevalence of PFO in the general population is approximately 25%; in the cryptogenic stroke (CS) population, PFO is overrepresented (prevalence of approx. 50%) the ... Read more


Dolichoectasia of basilar artery on CTA
ISCHEMIC STROKE / CLASSIFICATION AND ETIOPATHOGENESIS Dolichoectasia Created 27.01.2020, last update 16.12.2021 [toc] a progressive disease characterized by dilatation + tortuosity of the arteries; sometimes called dilated arteriopathy the vertebrobasilar artery is most commonly affected (⇒ vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia or megadolichobasilar artery) ICA is also at high risk of being affected incidence 0.06-6% [Brutto, 2021] poses ... Read more

Drop attack

ADD-ONS / OTHER VASCULAR DISORDERS Drop Attack Created 22.10.2020, last update 23.10.2021 [toc] Introduction drop attack is a symptom, not a diagnostic unit defined as a sudden fall while standing or walking, without accompanying loss of consciousness differentiate from syncope, where often prodromes and especially a brief disturbance of consciousness are present (but both may ... Read more
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