CT angiography (CTA)

M1 segment occlusion on CTA and NCCT (with a dense artery sign)
NEUROIMAGING / COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY CT angiography Created 21/03/2021, last revision 27/06/2022 [toc] CT angiography (CTA) is a rapid (takes ∼ 5 min), easily available, and non-invasive imaging method used to assess extra- and intracranial arteries it is based on the spatial reconstruction of the image from a series of axial scans after iodinated contrast agent ... Read more

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA)

ACoA aneurysm embolisation
RADIOLOGY / DSA Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) Created 03/05/2021, last revision 21/05/2022 [toc] Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a fluoroscopic technique used for visualizing the vascular system. Structures such as bones are digitally subtracted from the image, which allows a better depiction of the blood vessels. Indications Acute and elective therapeutic endovascular procedures acute stroke ... Read more

Early management of patients with suspected stroke

GENERAL THERAPY Early management of patients with suspected stroke Created 07/06/2022, last revision 05/09/2022 [toc] every patient with rapidly developing neurological deficits should be evaluated as a potential candidate for recanalization treatment and should be transported ASAP to the nearest stroke center or comprehensive stroke center for emergent diagnostic evaluation and therapy Definition and clinical ... Read more

CT perfusion (CTP)

CTP mismatch and final infarction after succesfull recanalisation of dominant M2 occlusion
NEUROIMAGING / COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY CT perfusion (CTP) Created 21/03/2021, last revision 14/02/2022 [toc] brain infarction results from a local decrease in cerebral blood flow (CBF) CT perfusion (CTP) can be used to assess cerebral blood flow and to differentiate penumbra (salvageable brain tissue) from the core (the area of damaged brain tissue) CTP, in fact, ... Read more

Computed tomography (CT) in stroke diagnosis

Subacute ischemia (day 3-7)
NEUROIMAGING / COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY Computed tomography (CT) in stroke diagnosis Created 24.11.2019, last update 04.04.2022 [toc] computed tomography (CT) is essential for managing patients with an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in most cases, CT is the first imaging method done, primarily to exclude bleeding CT stroke protocol In each patient with an acute neurological deficit, ... Read more

Collateral cerebral circulation

Extracranial anastomoses in ICA occlusion. There is a reversed flow in the ACA on the right.
ADD-ONS / ANATOMY Collateral cerebral circulation Created 01/03/2022, last revision 13/04/2022 [toc] the collateral cerebral circulation refers to the network of vascular channels that stabilize cerebral blood flow if the main vessel is stenosed or occluded arterial insufficiency may be caused by thromboembolism, hemodynamic compromise, or a combination of these factors reduced anterograde flow changes ... Read more

Subclavian (vertebral) steal syndrome

Subclavian steal ultrasound grades
NEUROIMAGING / NEUROSONOLOGY Subclavian (vertebral) steal syndrome Created 13/12/2021, last revision 13/09/2022 [toc] subclavian steal phenomenon = an altered (usually retrograde) blood flow in the vertebral artery (VA) or the internal thoracic artery due to a proximal stenosis/occlusion of the subclavian artery (SA) or brachiocephalic trunk (BCT) the upper limb is thus supplied with blood ... Read more

Carotid Body Tumor

Shamblin groups
ADD-ONS / OTHER VASCULAR DISORDERS Carotid Body Tumor Created 08.01.2020, last update 20.11.2021 [toc] carotid body tumor (glomus tumor) is a rare tumor, but it represents the most common extra-adrenal paragangliomas more common in women, typically diagnosed in the 4th-5th decade most cases are sporadic; hereditary forms account for 10% of cases familial tumors occur ... Read more

Pulmonary A-V malformation

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) on MR angiography (Schneider, 2008)
ISCHEMIC STROKE / CLASSIFICATION AND PATHOGENESIS Pulmonary A-V malformation Created 24.01.2018 , last update 23.10.2021 [toc] pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) consist of abnormal communications between the pulmonary arteries and veins synonyms:  pulmonary AVM, pulmonary arteriovenous fistula, pulmonary arteriovenous aneurysm occurrence of PAVM in the general population is rare in about 70-80% are associated with HHT ... Read more

Administration of iodinated contrast agents

NEUROIMAGING Administration of iodinated contrast agents Created 18/05/2021, last revision 06/06/2022 [toc] an iodinated contrast agent is a form of a radiocontrast agent (radiographic dye) containing iodine, which enhances the visibility of vascular structures and organs during radiographic procedures routes of administration: intravenous intraarterial oral others (rectal, cystourethral, and intra-articular) main indications in neuroradiology: contrast-enhanced ... Read more
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